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INTRODUCTION

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Hepatitis may be produced by many infectious and noninfectious agents. Typically, viral hepatitis refers to several clinically similar diseases that differ in cause and epidemiology. These include hepatitis A, B, C, D (delta), E, and G. Chronic lifelong infection has only been documented with hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) virus.

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The differential diagnosis of newborn liver disease includes idiopathic neonatal hepatitis (giant cell), biliary atresia, metabolic disorders, antitrypsin deficiency, cystic fibrosis, iron storage disease, and other infectious agents that cause hepatocellular injury (eg, cytomegalovirus [CMV], herpes simplex, rubella, varicella, toxoplasmosis, Listeria monocytogenes, syphilis, and tuberculosis, as well as bacterial sepsis, which can cause nonspecific hepatic dysfunction). Table 95–1 outlines various hepatitis panel tests useful in the management of this disease. Isolation precautions for all infectious diseases, including maternal and neonatal precautions, breast-feeding, and visiting issues, can be found in Appendix F.

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Table 95–1.   HEPATITIS TESTING 
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HEPATITIS A

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I. DEFINITION

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Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is caused by a nonenveloped 27-nM RNA virus that is a member of the Picornaviridae family (HAV). It is transmitted by the ...

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