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1. Transient tachypnea of the newborn

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Figure 2-1

Transient tachypnea of the newborn.

A. An anteroposterior radiograph at 5 hours of age shows faint prominence of interstitial lung markings. Heart size is in the upper limits of normal. B. A radiograph obtained the next day, after onset of increased respiratory distress, demonstrates a right tension pneumothorax.

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2. Transient tachypnea of the newborn; three different infants

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Figure 2-2

Transient tachypnea of the newborn; three different infants.

A. This 8-hour-old infant with moderate tachypnea has mild hyperinflation and subtle prominence of peribronchial markings. The heart is in the upper limits of normal in size. B. This markedly tachypneic 12-hour-old infant has severe hyperinflation, diffuse interstitial opacities, and a small, right pleural effusion. Dilated lymphatics contribute to the perihilar opacities. C. There is no substantial hyperinflation in this 2-hour-old infant. Faint alveolar opacification accompanies prominent peribronchial markings and indistinct pulmonary vessels. There is a trace of fluid in the minor fissure.

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3. Respiratory distress syndrome; radiographs of multiple infants

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Figure 2-3

Respiratory distress syndrome; radiographs of multiple infants.

A. First day of life; 26 weeks' gestation. There are diffuse fine granular opacities and mild underaeration. B. Second day of life; 26 weeks' gestation. There is marked pulmonary underaeration despite mechanical ventilation. C. Second day of life; 27 weeks' gestation. There are diffuse ground glass and granular opacities. Pulmonary underaeration is asymmetric. D. Second day of life; 28 weeks' gestation. There are diffuse fine opacities in mildly underinflated lungs. Air bronchograms are present centrally.

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4. Respiratory distress syndrome

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Figure 2-4

Respiratory distress syndrome.

An enlarged image of a 1-day-old infant's chest radiograph shows the characteristic fine reticulonodular pattern.

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5. Respiratory distress syndrome; surfactant therapy

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Figure 2-5

Respiratory distress syndrome; surfactant therapy.

A. There are typical diffuse granular lung opacities in this 1-dayold premature infant. B. After intubation and surfactant therapy, substantial interval clearing has occurred on this image obtained 2 days later.

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