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Chapter 3

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1. Bronchiolitis

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Figure 3-1

Bronchiolitis.

An anteroposterior chest radiograph of a 4-month-old infant with fever and tachypnea shows marked hyperinflation, prominence of central peribronchial markings, and patchy parahilar areas of atelectasis.

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2. Interstitial pneumonia

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Figure 3-2

Interstitial pneumonia.

There are fine reticular lung densities in this 1-year-old child with influenza pneumonitis.

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3. Lobar pneumonia

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Figure 3-3

Lobar pneumonia.

A, B. Anteroposterior and lateral views show dense consolidation in the left upper lobe.

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4. Lobar pneumonia

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Figure 3-4

Lobar pneumonia.

There is dense consolidation of the right upper lobe in this child with S. pneumoniae infection. Expansion of the infected lobe causes downward displacement of the minor fissure.

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5. Bronchopneumonia

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Figure 3-5

Bronchopneumonia.

There are patchy, mixed airspace opacities in the lower lobe of this 8-year-old boy with a community-acquired pneumonia. There is a small parapneumonic pleural effusion.

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6. Pneumonia

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Figure 3-6

Pneumonia.

A, B. Right lower-lobe consolidation was an incidental finding during abdominal sonography of this febrile 2-year-old child with abdominal pain. The basal portion of the left lower lobe has a solid appearance. Bright foci represent air in small airways.

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7. Mosaic pattern

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Figure 3-7

Mosaic pattern.

An expiration CT image of a child with cystic fibrosis shows regions of hypoattenuating air trapping interspersed with ground-glass attenuation lung that empties appropriately.

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8. Mosaic pattern

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Figure 3-8

Mosaic pattern.

This is an 8-year-old child with a history of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. A. A coronal CT image obtained during inspiration shows hyperinflation and a somewhat heterogenous pattern of lung attenuation. B. Regions of the lungs affected by small airway disease remain hypoattenuating on the expiration image, as a result of air trapping.

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9. Centrilobular nodules

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Figure 3-9

Centrilobular nodules.

There are multiple right lower-lobe nodules in this child with HIV and Pneumocystis infection. Some of the nodules contain tiny air-filled bronchioles. A more confluent focus of consolidation is present in the right middle lobe.

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10. Randomly distributed nodules

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Figure 3-10

Randomly distributed nodules....

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