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1. Cylindrical bronchiectasis

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Figure 4-1

Cylindrical bronchiectasis.

CT of a teenager with cystic fibrosis shows cylindrical bronchiectasis in the left upper lobe.

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2. Bronchiectasis

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Figure 4-2

Bronchiectasis.

CT of a 17-year-old with cystic fibrosis shows the cross-sectional appearance of a dilated bronchus and its companion pulmonary artery, resulting in the signet ring sign.

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3. Bronchiolitis obliterans

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Figure 4-3

Bronchiolitis obliterans.

A CT image obtained during expiration shows air trapping in the right upper lobe.

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4. Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia

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Figure 4-4

Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia.

CT of a 15-year-old boy who presented with dyspnea 4 months after bone marrow transplantation shows patchy airspace consolidation and ground-glass opacities.

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5. Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia

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Figure 4-5

Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia.

CT shows multiple small nodules within hyperinflated lung.

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6. Asthma

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Figure 4-6

Asthma.

There is collapse of the left upper lobe and right middle lobe on this 2-view radiographic examination of the chest. The lungs are moderately hyperinflated. Central atelectasis and prominence of central peribronchial markings result in irregularity of the cardiac silhouette borders on the frontal view.

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7. Asthma

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Figure 4-7

Asthma.

A lateral chest radiograph of a 17-year-old male shows marked prominence of the retrosternal airspace. The diaphragm is flattened.

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8. Asthma

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Figure 4-8

Asthma.

A posteroanterior chest radiograph of a 15-year-old male shows hyperinflation, flattening of the diaphragm, peripheral pulmonary vascular tapering, a small heart, and minimal central bronchial wall thickening.

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9. Asthma

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Figure 4-9

Asthma.

A, B. PA and lateral chest radiographs of a 9-year-old asthma patient demonstrate hyperinflation and subtle peribronchial thickening.

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10. Cystic fibrosis

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Figure 4-10

Cystic fibrosis.

A, B. Posteroanterior and lateral chest radiographs of a 13-year-old girl with cystic fibrosis show hyperinflation and prominence of peribronchial markings. There are ill-defined peripheral linear opacities at the lung bases and in the right middle lobe.

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