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1. Hydrocephalus

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Figure 15-1

Hydrocephalus.

A midline sagittal image of a child with aqueductal stenosis shows dilation of the third ventricle (arrows).

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2. Hydrocephalus

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Figure 15-2

Hydrocephalus.

A. A T2-weighted spin echo MR image shows dilation of the lateral ventricles, effacement of cortical sulci, and periventricular edema (arrow). B. The periventricular edema (arrow) is hyperintense on this coronal FLAIR image. There is dilation of the third ventricle and the temporal horns, as well as the bodies of the lateral ventricles.

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3. Hydrocephalus

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Figure 15-3

Hydrocephalus.

An unenhanced CT image shows ventriculomegaly and periventricular edema.

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4. Arachnoid cyst of the quadrigeminal plate cistern

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Figure 15-4

Arachnoid cyst of the quadrigeminal plate cistern.

A, B. Sagittal and axial T1-weighted MR images of a 2-month-old child with macrocephaly show obstructive hydrocephalus due to a very large cyst (arrows) of the quadrigeminal plate cistern. The cyst compresses the dorsal aspect of the brainstem and causes inferior displacement of the cerebellum. The cerebral aqueduct is not visible.

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5. Acute hydrocephalus due to a cerebellar juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma

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Figure 15-5

Acute hydrocephalus due to a cerebellar juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma.

This 4-year-old child presented with a 10-day history of headache, nausea, and vomiting. A. Contrast-enhanced sagittal MR shows an enhancing cystic and solid mass of the cerebellum. There is compression of the fourth ventricle. The cerebral aqueduct is prominent. B. There is mild dilation of the lateral and third ventricles on this coronal FLAIR image. Minimal periventricular edema is present.

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6. Unilateral congenital foramen of Monro obstruction

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Figure 15-6

Unilateral congenital foramen of Monro obstruction.

A, B. Axial and coronal MR images of a 1-day-old infant with macrocephaly show marked dilation of the right lateral ventricle. There is no periventricular edema. The enlarged lateral ventricle bulges across the midline. The third ventricle and left lateral ventricle are normal in size.

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7. Aqueductal stenosis

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Figure 15-7

Aqueductal stenosis.

A. An axial T1-weighted MR image of a newborn with macrocephaly shows severe dilation of the lateral ventricles. The 3rd ventricle (arrow) is blind-ending and there is no visible aqueduct in the midbrain. There is a somewhat beaked character of the tectum. B. 3 mm thick T1-weighted sagittal images also failed to demonstrate ...

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