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1. Cortical nephrocalcinosis

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Figure 50-1

Cortical nephrocalcinosis.

There is hyperechogenicity in the cortex and central septa of Bertin on this longitudinal sonographic image. Individual calcifications are too small to be visualized.

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2. Medullary nephrocalcinosis

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Figure 50-2

Medullary nephrocalcinosis.

There is hyperechogenicity of the renal pyramids on this longitudinal sonographic image.

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3. Medullary nephrocalcinosis

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Figure 50-3

Medullary nephrocalcinosis.

A, B. Longitudinal sonographic images of the right and left kidneys of a 17-year-old girl with HIV infection and hypercalciuria show marked hyperechogenicity of the medullary pyramids (arrows). No macroscopic stones are present.

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4. Medullary nephrocalcinosis

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Figure 50-4

Medullary nephrocalcinosis.

This 11-year-old girl has primary Fanconi syndrome. A longitudinal sonographic image of the left kidney demonstrates marked hyperechogenicity of the renal pyramids (arrow) due to nephrocalcinosis. Echogenicity of the cortex is normal. There is mild hydronephrosis.

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5. Medullary nephrocalcinosis

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Figure 50-5

Medullary nephrocalcinosis.

Unenhanced CT shows dense medullary pyramid calcifications in a 5-year-old child with renal tubular acidosis.

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6. Staghorn calculus

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Figure 50-6

Staghorn calculus.

An anteroposterior (AP) radiograph demonstrates a struvite stone filling the right pelvicalyceal system of a child with recurrent urinary tract infections.

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7. Urethral calculi

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Figure 50-7

Urethral calculi.

Urethrography demonstrates 2 filling defects proximal to a stricture.

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8. Phlebolith

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Figure 50-8

Phlebolith.

This small round calcification (arrows) has a central lucency and is located in the inferior-lateral aspect of the pelvis below the right iliac spine.

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9. Phlebolith

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Figure 50-9

Phlebolith.

A CT image of a 13-year-old girl shows the typical central lucency and round configuration of a phlebolith (arrow).

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10. Obstructing ureteral calculus

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Figure 50-10

Obstructing ureteral calculus.

A 20-minute intravenous urogram image demonstrates enlargement of the left kidney, hydronephrosis, a dense persistent nephrogram, and a stone (arrow) along the expected course of the ureter.

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