The three most important and common types of acyanotic congenital heart disease are:
All three conditions are covered sequentially in this chapter.
A 4-year-old recent immigrant from Nicaragua presents to her pediatrician for a well-child examination. She does not have any significant past medical history. On examination, she was found to have a normodynamic precordium, widely split and fixed S2 and a grade 2/6 systolic ejection murmur in the pulmonary auscultation area. She is diagnosed with an atrial septal defect (ASD) (Figure 42-1).
Atrial septal defect with flow from the left atrium to the right atrium as depicted by the red arrow. (Reprinted with permission, Cleveland Clinic Center for Medical Art & Photography © 2012. All Rights Reserved.)
Any opening in the atrial septum is described as an ASD. Although many of these defects close spontaneously, early diagnosis and follow-up is essential in preventing sequelae from undiagnosed ASD’s.
Etiology and Pathophysiology