Skip to Main Content
Chapter 20

### EPIDEMIOLOGY

#### Incidence and Definitions

Hypotension is a common problem in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).1 More than half of neonates admitted to the NICU also carry the diagnosis of hypotension. Although the incidence is higher with lower gestational age at birth, the exact incidence is not known. This is primarily because of the lack of consensus on what constitutes hypotension.2 Indeed, there are many ways to define neonatal hypotension, and the differences among the definitions obviously affect the reported incidence of hypotension and the decision to treat the condition.3,4 As the ultimate goal is to ensure that oxygen delivery matches tissue oxygen demand in all organs, hypotension best can be defined based on physiologic principles, that is, by assessing the effects of decreased perfusion pressure on organ blood flow and oxygen delivery. However, because in the first, “compensated” phase of shock, vital organ (brain, myocardium, adrenal glands) blood flow and blood pressure (BP) are maintained by the neuroendocrine mechanism-driven redistribution of blood flow from nonvital organs, hypotension only presents when shock enters its second, “uncompensated” phase and vital organ blood flow also declines. Therefore, hypotension can be best defined as the BP below which vital organ (eg, brain) blood flow autoregulation is lost and cerebral blood flow (CBF) starts decreasing in proportion to the decrease in BP (the so-called autoregulatory threshold of hypotension; Figure 20-1).5 On further decrease in BP and oxygen delivery, cellular function cannot be appropriately maintained, but structural integrity is not yet significantly affected (the so-called functional threshold of hypotension; Figure 20-1).5 Finally, on further decline in BP and oxygen delivery, structural integrity of tissues becomes affected, resulting in permanent organ damage (the so-called ischemic threshold of hypotension; Figure 20-1).5 Unfortunately, there are few data on the cutoff values, and because the capacity of the cardiovascular and neuroendocrine systems to appropriately compensate is affected by gestational and postnatal age as well as the underlying pathophysiology, these values likely vary in the individual patient and even for the same patient at different times.

###### FIGURE 20-1

Definition of hypotension by 3 pathophysiologic phenomena5 of increasing severity: autoregulatory, functional, and ischemic thresholds of hypotension. The mean blood pressure (MBP) associated with the loss of cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation is the generally accepted definition of hypotension (autoregulatory blood pressure threshold). Preliminary data suggest that the autoregulatory blood pressure threshold might be around 28 to 30 mm Hg in the very low birth weight (VLBW) neonate during the first postnatal days.5 However, at present it remains unclear what to do with this information in clinical practice. If blood pressure continues to fall, it reaches a value at which cerebral function becomes compromised (functional blood pressure threshold). Available preliminary data suggest that the functional blood pressure threshold might be around 22 to 24 mm Hg in the VLBW neonate during ...

### MyAccess Sign In

Username
Password

Want remote access to your institution's subscription?

Sign in to your MyAccess profile while you are actively authenticated on this site via your institution (you will be able to verify this by looking at the top right corner of the screen - if you see your institution's name, you are authenticated). Once logged in to your MyAccess profile, you will be able to access your institution's subscription for 90 days from any location. You must be logged in while authenticated at least once every 90 days to maintain this remote access.

Ok

### Create a Free MyAccess Profile

* Required Fields

Note: If you have registered for a MyAccess profile on any of the Access sites, you can use the same MyAccess login credentials across all sites.

Passwords must be between 6 and 40 characters long (no whitespace), cannot contain characters #, &, and must contain:
• at least one lowercase letter
• at least one uppercase letter
• at least one digit

### Benefits of a MyAccess Profile:

• Remote access to the site off-campus on any device
• Notification of new content via custom alerts
• Bookmark your favorite content such as chapters, figures, tables, videos, cases and more
• Save and download images to PowerPoint
• Self-Assessment quizzes saved for quick review
• Custom Curriculum access for both instructors and learners

## Subscription Options

### AccessPediatrics Full Site: One-Year Subscription

Connect to the full suite of AccessPediatrics content and resources including 20+ textbooks such as Rudolph’s Pediatrics and The Pediatric Practice series, high-quality procedural videos, images, and animations, interactive board review, an integrated pediatric drug database, and more.

$595 USD ### Pay Per View: Timed Access to all of AccessPediatrics 24 Hour Subscription$34.95

Buy Now

48 Hour Subscription \$54.95

Buy Now

### Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.