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  • Cyclospora cayetanensis is the only species known to infect humans

  • Cyclosporiasis is seen in three main epidemiologic settings

    • Sporadic cases in endemic areas (particularly Haiti, Guatemala, Peru, and Nepal)

    • Travelers to endemic areas

    • Food- or water-borne outbreaks in nonendemic areas, particularly in relation to importation of fresh produce

  • Incubation period is approximately 7 days (range 2–14 days)

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Clinical Findings

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  • May be asymptomatic

  • Diarrhea

    • Can be mild to moderate self-limited diarrhea or cause protracted or severe

    • In immunocompetent persons, usually lasts 10–25 days but may be followed by a relapsing pattern that can last several months

    • Defined as 5–15 movements per day

    • Usually watery, sometimes explosive

    • Often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, and bloating

  • Profound fatigue, anorexia, and myalgias have been reported

  • Infection can be unusually severe in immunocompromised patients, especially those with HIV/AIDS

  • Although the illness is self-limited, it may last for several weeks

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Diagnosis

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  • Diagnosis is based on finding oocysts 8–10 mm in diameter on examination of stool specimens stained with acid-fast stain

  • Polymerase chain reaction of stool is available at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and some reference laboratories

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Treatment

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  • Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 7 days

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