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Key Features

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  • Nontraumatic causes include juvenile xanthogranuloma and blood dyscrasias

  • Rarely, noted in the newborn after a stressful birth

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Clinical Findings

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  • Blunt trauma severe enough to cause a hyphema may be associated with additional ocular injury, including iritis, lens subluxation, retinal edema or detachment, and glaucoma

  • In patients with sickle cell anemia or trait, even moderate elevations of intraocular pressure may quickly lead to optic atrophy and permanent vision loss

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Diagnosis

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  • Slit-lamp examination or penlight examination may reveal a layer of blood within the anterior chamber

  • A hyphema may be microscopic or may fill the entire anterior chamber

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Treatment

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  • A shield should be placed over the eye, the head elevated, and arrangements made for ophthalmologic referral

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