Skip to Main Content

++

  • There are approximately 2.4 million cases of ingestion or toxin exposure annually in the US. Half are in children younger than 6 yr, with a peak incidence at age 1–2 yr. Two-thirds are in patients younger than age 20 yr.
  • Leading fatal agents of ingestion (all ages): Analgesics, antidepressants, cardiovascular drugs, street drugs.
  • Leading agents of ingestion (adolescents): Acetaminophen, barbiturates, stimulants, antidepressants, alcohol.
  • Majority of poisonings occur at home, and ∼10% involve two or more substances.
  • Adolescents: 50% intentional; 50% unintentional.
  • Poisonous substance storage precautions should be discussed at every 6-month well-child visit.
  • Child-resistant closures have decreased the mortality of unintentional ingestions by 45%.
  • One to two tablets or 1 to 2 tsp (standard pediatric “swallow” ∼5–10 cc) of the standard-strength preparations of the following medications are potentially fatal to a 10-kg child:
    • Antiarrhythmics, antimalarials (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine), benzocaine, β-blockers, CCBs, camphor, clonidine, Lomotil (diphenoxylate/atropine), lindane, methyl salicylate, opioids (codeine, morphine, pentazocine), phenothiazines (thioridazine, chlorpromazine), quinine, theophylline, TCAs (imipramine, desipramine)
  • Nontoxic pharmaceuticals: Antacids, antibiotics, corticosteroids, contraceptives, laxatives, mineral oil, ACE inhibitors
  • Nontoxic household products: Cosmetics, deodorants, dehumidifying (silica gel) packets, matches, candles

++
Table Graphic Jump Location
Favorite Table | Download (.pdf) | Print

Cosmetics or personal care substances

13.4%

Cleaning products

9.8%

Analgesics

8.2%

Foreign bodies

7.4%

Topicals

7.2%

Cough and cold medicines

5.7%

Plants

4.0%

Pesticides

4.0%

Vitamins

3.9%

Antihistamines

2.9%

Data from Clin Toxicol. 2006;44:803.

++

(Emerg Med Clin North Am 2007;25:249)

++

  • History Should address the questions what?, when?, how?, how much?, what symptoms?, and why?: Timing of ingestion, substance(s) taken, amount taken (pill count or volume quantification, if bottle available), location of ingestion (kitchen vs bedroom vs other), reason or circumstances of exposure or ingestion, symptoms before arrival, other substances in the home (possible co-ingestions), concomitant illness or trauma (possible supratherapeutic or chronic dosing of acetaminophen or aspirin), history of depression or prior suicide attempts (in adolescents), history of street drug use.

++
eFigure 27-1.
Graphic Jump Location

Simultaneous diagnostic and treatment approach to a poisoned patient. (Adapted from Emerg Med Clin North Am 2007;25:249)

++
Table Graphic Jump Location
Favorite Table | Download (.pdf) | Print

Marijuana: Acapulco gold, bhang, doobie, ganja, grass, joint, Mary Jane, pot, rope, reefer

Amphetamines: Black beauties, crank, crystals, cat (methcathinone), ice, ecstasy, meth, pep pills, smart drug (Ritalin), speed, uppers

Ecstasy: Adam, E, lollies, love drug, smarties, vitamin E, XTC

Heroin: Boy, China white, dust, Harry, horse, junk, monkey, smack, speed ball (with cocaine), atom bomb (with marijuana)

PCP: Angel dust, goon, horse tranquilizer, hog, Sherman, tank, wickie stick (with marijuana)

δ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB): Bioski, Georgia home boy, grievous bodily harm, liquid G, liquid ecstasy, somatomax, cow growth hormone

Cocaine: All-American drug, coke, crack, girl, mother of pearl, nose candy, Peruvian powder, snow, toot, white lady

LSD: Acid, blotters, microdots, paper acid, pyramids, window pane, Zen

++

  • Anticipate: Seizures, altered mental status, multi-organ dysfunction, respiratory ...

Want remote access to your institution's subscription?

Sign in to your MyAccess profile while you are actively authenticated on this site via your institution (you will be able to verify this by looking at the top right corner of the screen - if you see your institution's name, you are authenticated). Once logged in to your MyAccess profile, you will be able to access your institution's subscription for 90 days from any location. You must be logged in while authenticated at least once every 90 days to maintain this remote access.

Ok

About MyAccess

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus.

Subscription Options

AccessPediatrics Full Site: One-Year Subscription

Connect to the full suite of AccessPediatrics content and resources including 20+ textbooks such as Rudolph’s Pediatrics and The Pediatric Practice series, high-quality procedural videos, images, and animations, interactive board review, an integrated pediatric drug database, and more.

$595 USD
Buy Now

Pay Per View: Timed Access to all of AccessPediatrics

24 Hour Subscription $34.95

Buy Now

48 Hour Subscription $54.95

Buy Now

Pop-up div Successfully Displayed

This div only appears when the trigger link is hovered over. Otherwise it is hidden from view.