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The chapter provides some summary data on commonly used drugs and substances that may be taken by the mother during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Regardless of the designated risk category or presumed safety, no drug or substance should be used during pregnancy or breast-feeding unless it is clearly needed and the potential benefits clearly outweigh the risks.


Table 133–1 lists the generic medication name and in parentheses the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) fetal risk category as of the fall of 2008 (see later). Reported pregnancy-adverse events and comments are presented based on the available reports in the literature. Next, breast-feeding compatibility is noted. At the present time there is no formally FDA-sanctioned breast-feeding category, and the system used here is discussed later. Lastly, any reported effects on lactation or on infant effects based on breast milk consumption are noted. The editorial board has made an attempt to summarize the data based on the best information available for an individual agent where sources disagree. These data are subject to change as new information becomes available. The reader is advised to consult the FDA and manufacturer's web site for the latest information concerning risks of these medications.

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Table 133–1. Effects of Drugs and Substances in Pregnancy and Breast-Feeding

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