... Patients with congenital muscular torticollis present with persistent head tilt to the affected side and lateral rotation of the head to the contralateral side, which has been present since birth. The etiology of this contracture of the sternocleidomastoid muscle is likely related...

... Acute torticollis can result from any inflammatory process that irritates the cervical muscles, nerves, or vertebrae. There is unilateral spasm of the SCM such that the head is positioned with the occiput rotated to the ipsilateral side and the chin is rotated to the contralateral side...

... Many young infants exhibit a head tilt or head turn preference that is exacerbated by back sleeping. This can lead to flattening of the posterior aspect of the head. The current campaign to encourage back sleeping appears to be causing an increased prevalence of this primary form of torticollis...

... Torticollis, or wryneck, is stiff neck associated with muscle spasm in previously normal children. There are congenital causes but discussion will focus on acquired muscular torticollis, which is often seen in the emergency department. Most common symptoms are neck muscle pain, and inability...

... Figure 213-1 Congenital muscular torticollis in a young boy. The tight left sternocleidomastoid causes the left head tilt and chin rotation to the right. The tight left sternocleidomastoid muscle is evident. Torticollis (wryneck) is a head position whereby the ear is tilted to 1...

... ) Torticollis. Neck pain, torticollis, limitation of neck movements, and muscle spasm are some of the findings seen with cervical spine injury. However, torticollis can result from many etiologies, as seen in this child presenting with acute onset of torticollis not related to trauma. He woke up with muscle...

... FIGURE 17.26 Dystonic Reaction. ( A ) Extrapyramidal signs seen here such as torticollis, inability to speak, and trismus were the presenting complaints in this girl who was brought to the ED from the school, and there was no history available. Based on her clinical findings...

.... ( D ) Five weeks after the battery removal, the same patient presented to the ED with new onset of torticollis. Sagittal reconstruction of the cervical spine shows disc space loss and vertebral end plate irregularity at T1–T2 level (arrow) compatible with spondylodiscitis. ( E ) Sagittal T2 image...

... Figure 30–30 Fibromatosis colli. A . A longitudinal sonographic image of a 25-day-old infant with torticollis shows marked enlargement and moderate hyperechogenicity of the right SCM ( arrows ). B . The left SCM muscle ( arrow ) is normal. Figure 30–31 Fibromatosis...

... Figure 25–6 Atlantoaxial rotatory fixation; Fielding type I. A. A CT scout image of a 15-year-old boy with torticollis shows rotation of the head to the left. B. An axial CT at the level of the atlas shows approximiately 35° rotation of the head and the atlas relative...

... lesion. Figure 24–29 Langerhans cell histiocytosis. This 22-month-old girl presented with a 3-week history of progressive torticollis and neck pain. A . Contrast-enhanced CT (bone window) shows a lytic lesion ( arrow ) of the left side of C2. Adjacent soft tissue fullness is present...

... Figure 15-17 Torticollis in a 20-month-old child with hemifacial distortion and plagiocephaly. The natural history of untreated torticollis is complete resolution in 50% to 70% of cases by 6 months of age. In about 10% of cases, the lesion and sternomastoid shortening persist...

... Figure 22–9 Klippel-Feil syndrome and Sprengel deformity. A. A lateral radiograph of an infant with torticollis, a short neck, and elevated shoulders shows multiple neural arch fusions of the cervical spine. Large omovertebral bones are present ( arrow ). B. CT confirms...

... Figure 15-18 Surgical treatment of torticollis. A. The transverse cervical incision is extended through the platysma. B. The sternocleidomastoid muscle is then divided in the area of fibrosis cephalad to the sternal and clavicular heads but caudal to the spinal accessory nerve...

... Figure 26–9. Torticollis in a young male. A photo shows the head and upper torso of a young boy. His chin is tilted laterally toward the left side. Injury to the sternocleidomastoid muscle during delivery or disease affecting the cervical spine in infancy, such as congenital...

... Torticollis is occasionally associated with congenital deformities of the cervical spine. Radiographs of the spine are indicated in most cases where such anomalies are suspected. In addition, there is a 15%–20% incidence of associated hip dysplasia. ...

... If torticollis in early infancy is left untreated, a striking facial asymmetry can persist. Passive stretching is an effective treatment in up to 97% of all cases. If the deformity does not correct with passive stretching during the first year of life, surgical release of the muscle origin...