Apgar scores are a numerical expression of the condition of a newborn infant on a scale of 0–10. The scores are recorded at 1 and 5 minutes after delivery and become a permanent part of the health record. If there is a problem, an additional score is given at 10 minutes. A score of 7–10 is normal (10 is very unusual), 4–7 usually requires some resuscitative measures, and <3 requires immediate resuscitation. They have clinical usefulness not only during the nursery stay, but also at later child health visits when clinical status at delivery may have a bearing on current diagnostic assessments. The system was originally described by Virginia Apgar, MD, an anesthesiologist, in 1952 and first published in 1953.