Mortality increases with decreasing gestational age when IUGR is also present. Mortality decreases by 48% for each week that the fetus remains in utero before 30 weeks' gestation. Neurodevelopmental morbidities are seen 5–10 times more often in IUGR infants compared with AGA infants. Neurodevelopmental outcome depends not only on the cause of IUGR but also on the adverse events in the neonatal course (eg, perinatal depression or hypoglycemia). Many studies reveal evidence of minimal brain dysfunction, including hyperactivity, short attention span, and learning problems. Preterm IUGR infants also show alterations in early neurobehavioral functions like attention-interaction capacity and cognitive and memory dysfunction that persist. Increased risk of cerebral palsy, a wide spectrum of learning disabilities, mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorders, and neuropsychiatric disorders are seen in later years. The risk of morbidities is higher in term IUGR infants. IUGR infants who have normal Doppler studies have better outcomes than those with abnormal antenatal Doppler studies. Even mild FGR increases the risk of mortality and long-term development.