An assistant needed to help maintain a sterile field, monitor and assess the infant, and record the procedure and exchanged volumes. Also needed are radiant warming bed or hybrid incubator, equipment for cardiorespiratory monitoring, support and resuscitation, immediate access to blood gas determinations, equipment for umbilical artery and umbilical vein catheterization (see Chapters 24 and 44), disposable ET tray, and nasogastric tube for evacuating the stomach before beginning the transfusion. Temperature-controlled device must be used for warming of the blood before and during the transfusion (should have an internal disposable coil and connectors to the donor blood bag and the ET circuit. The blood should be warmed to 37°C. Use of makeshift water baths or heaters is not advised because blood that is too warm may hemolyze).