An infant is noted to have severe bruises after birth, and a nurse observes that the infant is not using his right arm. The birth was noted to be traumatic, and the nurse calls you to evaluate the infant. Birth injuries are injuries that occur during the birth process. The incidence is ∽6–8 per 1000 live births (higher rates for infants >4500 g). Birth injuries occur from both vaginal and cesarean deliveries. Infants delivered by cesarean section are at risk for different types of birth trauma than infants delivered vaginally. Infants delivered by cesarean have a decreased risk of all birth trauma due to the decreased risk of clavicle fractures, brachial plexus, and scalp injuries.