The diagnosis and management of acute problems of the newborn are common in the daily clinical practice of neonatologists and pediatricians as well as other health care professionals involved in the care of babies after birth. A variety of comprehensive neonatology textbooks exists addressing both acute and chronic problems of the newborn. These texts typically contain limited specific details about management approaches or procedures relevant to the topical areas. On the other hand, there are a number of manuals for clinical care or procedures that provide more detail but do not provide much in the way of comprehensive topical reviews. The goal of the current book is to combine the knowledge content feature of a comprehensive neonatology textbook with the practical nature of an atlas. This practical aspect of the book should make it more useful to the practitioner on a day-to-day basis as well as provide the knowledge content needed for ensuring a more fundamental understanding of the selected topics. To make the book manageable and based on the experiences of the editors, we decided to focus on what we would describe as essential neonatology and concentrate on selected acute problems of the newborn. Thus, our book has a practical orientation to the topics, and the last section covers detailed information about management approaches and procedures that would complement the various topical areas of the text. Finally, the book is intended to be useful to all physicians involved in the diagnosis and management of newborn infants after birth. In one book, we offer comprehensive reviews of selected topics and comprehensive advice about management approaches and procedures based on the highest level of evidence available in each case. Our goal is to provide an authoritative practical medical resource for neonatologists, pediatricians, and other health care providers dealing with newborns after birth.