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Sexual activity is common among adolescents. A large ongoing national survey of US high school students reported that 24% of adolescents have had sexual intercourse by ninth grade and 58.1% by 12th grade, based on data collected in 2014 to 2015. Although rates of sexual activity have slowly decreased during 1991 to 2015, the adolescent age group continues to be at the highest risk for common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) compared to other age groups.

This chapter provides an overview of STIs including the common clinical presentations, screening guidelines, and treatment for bacterial, fungal, protozoal, and viral infections. For the most up-to-date clinical guidelines on treatment regimens, readers are strongly advised to refer to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) web site since the optimal treatment regimens are frequently updated based on antibiotic resistance patterns and logistical availability of specific medications in the United States. Table 228-1 summarizes the major points about chlamydia, gonorrhea, human papillomavirus (HPV), Trichomonas, and Candida. Detailed discussions of syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are found in Chapters 283, 310, and 304, respectively.


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