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INTRODUCTION

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Normal Pediatric Vital Signs
Age Heart Rate (per min) Respiratory Rate (per min) Blood Pressure Systolic/Diastolic (MAP) Circulating Blood Volume (mL/kg)
0–2 months 100–180 30–80 60–90/30–60 85–90
(40 s–50 s)
2–12 months 100–160 30–60 87–105/53–66 75–80
(50 s)
1–3 years 80–110 24–40 95–105/53–66 75–80
(60–65)
3–5 years 70–110 22–34 96–108/55–67 75–80
(65–69)
5–12 years 65–110 18–30 97–112/57–71 70–75
(70–77)
13 years+ 60–90 12–16 112–128/66–80 65–70
(77–80 s)

MAP: mean arterial pressure

METRIC CONVERSIONS

  • Pounds to kilograms: 2.2 lb = 1 kg

  • Inches to centimeters: 1 in = 2.54 cm

  • Fahrenheit temperature to Celsius:

    •   98.6 = 37.0

    • 100.0 = 37.8

    • 101.0 = 38.3

    • 101.3 = 38.5

    • 102.2 = 39.0

    • 103.1 = 39.5

    • 104.0 = 40.0

    • 105.8 = 41.0

CALCULATING MAINTENANCE FLUID REQUIREMENTS IN CHILDREN

DAILY MAINTENANCE FORMULA

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0–10 kg 100 mL/kg
11–20 kg 1000 mL for first 10 kg + 50 mL/kg for 11–20 kg
21+ kg 1500 mL for first 20 kg + 25 mL/kg for 21+ kg

HOURLY MAINTENANCE FORMULA

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0–10 kg 4 mL/kg/hr
11–20 kg 40 mL/hr for first 10 kg + 2 mL/kg/hr for 11–20 kg
21+ kg 60 mL/hr for first 20 kg + 1 mL/kg/hr for 21+ kg
Adult maintenance 80–120 mL/hr
Insensible fluid rate 300–400 mL/m2/day, divide by 24 for rate/hr

BODY SURFACE AREA (BSA)

BSA(m2)=([Height(cm)×Weight(kg)]/3600)1/2

A rough estimate of BSA may be made by: [(wt in kg × 4) + 7]/[90 + wt in kg]

GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE (GFR)

GFR (Schwartz Equation) = k×Height (cm)/(Scr in g/dL) mL/min/1.73 m2 K value = 0.33<40 Gest Age = 0.45 40 wk1 yr = 0.55 1 yr13 yr males,>1 yr females = 0.65>13 yr males

Scr: serum creatinine

CreatinineClearance(mL/min):CrCl=(UrineCr)(Urinevolume)(PlasmaCr)(TimeinMin)

Corrected for BSA: CrCl * 1.73 / BSA in m2

FRACTIONAL EXCRETION OF SODIUM (FeNA)

  • FeNa = (UNa/PNa)/(UCr/PCr) × 100%

    • UNa – Urine sodium

    • PNa – Plasma sodium

    • UCr – Urine creatinine

    • PCr – Plasma creatinine

  • Calculated Serum Osmolality = 2*(Na) ...

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