## INTRODUCTION

 Normal Pediatric Vital Signs Age Heart Rate (per min) Respiratory Rate (per min) Blood Pressure Systolic/Diastolic (MAP) Circulating Blood Volume (mL/kg) 0–2 months 100–180 30–80 60–90/30–60 85–90 (40 s–50 s) 2–12 months 100–160 30–60 87–105/53–66 75–80 (50 s) 1–3 years 80–110 24–40 95–105/53–66 75–80 (60–65) 3–5 years 70–110 22–34 96–108/55–67 75–80 (65–69) 5–12 years 65–110 18–30 97–112/57–71 70–75 (70–77) 13 years+ 60–90 12–16 112–128/66–80 65–70 (77–80 s)

MAP: mean arterial pressure

## METRIC CONVERSIONS

• Pounds to kilograms: 2.2 lb = 1 kg

• Inches to centimeters: 1 in = 2.54 cm

• Fahrenheit temperature to Celsius:

•   98.6 = 37.0

• 100.0 = 37.8

• 101.0 = 38.3

• 101.3 = 38.5

• 102.2 = 39.0

• 103.1 = 39.5

• 104.0 = 40.0

• 105.8 = 41.0

## CALCULATING MAINTENANCE FLUID REQUIREMENTS IN CHILDREN

### DAILY MAINTENANCE FORMULA

 0–10 kg 100 mL/kg 11–20 kg 1000 mL for first 10 kg + 50 mL/kg for 11–20 kg 21+ kg 1500 mL for first 20 kg + 25 mL/kg for 21+ kg

### HOURLY MAINTENANCE FORMULA

 0–10 kg 4 mL/kg/hr 11–20 kg 40 mL/hr for first 10 kg + 2 mL/kg/hr for 11–20 kg 21+ kg 60 mL/hr for first 20 kg + 1 mL/kg/hr for 21+ kg Adult maintenance 80–120 mL/hr Insensible fluid rate 300–400 mL/m2/day, divide by 24 for rate/hr

### BODY SURFACE AREA (BSA)

$BSA(m2​)=([Height(cm)×Weight(kg)]/ 3600)1/2$

A rough estimate of BSA may be made by: [(wt in kg × 4) + 7]/[90 + wt in kg]

### GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE (GFR)

Scr: serum creatinine

$Creatinine Clearance(mL/min):CrCl=(Urine Cr)(Urine volume)(Plasma Cr)(Time in Min)$

Corrected for BSA: CrCl * 1.73 / BSA in m2

### FRACTIONAL EXCRETION OF SODIUM (FeNA)

• FeNa = (UNa/PNa)/(UCr/PCr) × 100%

• UNa – Urine sodium

• PNa – Plasma sodium

• UCr – Urine creatinine

• PCr – Plasma creatinine

• Calculated Serum ...

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