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AACN American Association of Critical Care Nurses
AAD antibiotic-associated diarrhea
AAO American Academy of Otolaryngology
AAP American Academy of Pediatrics
AAPOS American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
ABC acute bacterial conjunctivitis
ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme
ACIP Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices
ACOG American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology
ADEM acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
AD-HIES autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome
ADP adenosine diphosphate
AER Adverse Event Reporting
AFB acid-fast bacill(us)(i)
AFM acute flaccid myelitis
Ag antigen
AGT antiglobulin test
AHA American Heart Association
AHO acute hematogenous osteomyelitis
AHRQ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
AIIR airborne infection isolation room
ALL acute lymphocytic leukemia
ALN acute lobar nephronia
ALPS autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome
ALT alanine aminotransferase
AMPA α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolapropiomic acid
ANA antinuclear antibody
ANC absolute neutrophil count
ANCA antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody
AOE acute otitis externa
AOM acute otitis media
APECED autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (dysplasia)
APIC Association for Professionals in Infection Control
APSAC American Professional Society of the Abuse of Children
ARF acute rheumatic fever
ARR absolute risk reduction
ART antiretroviral therapy
ASM American Society for Microbiology
ASO antistreptolysin O
AST aspartate aminotransferase
AT ataxia telangiectasia
ATM acute transverse myelitis
ATS American Thoracic Society
ATV atazanavir
AUC area under the (time–concentration t/C) curve
AUC/MIC area under the (t/C) curve over the minimum inhibitory concentration (Ch 8; ratio of total drug exposure over time, represented as an area under the t/C curve, over MIC)
AUROC area under receiver–operator characteristic curve
AVM malformation
AWARE Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation
AZT zidovudine
BAL bronchoalveolar lavage
BBB blood–brain barrier
BCG bacille Calmette–Guérin
BCPPS Board Certified Pediatric Pharmacy Specialist
BCSA Burkholderia cepacia–selective agar
BCYE buffered charcoal–yeast extract
BGMK buffalo green monkey kidney
BJI bone–joint infection
BMI body mass index
BNP B-type natriuretic peptide
BRAT bananas, rice, applesauce, toast
BRUE brief, resolved, unexplained event
BSA body surface area
BSEP bile salt export pump
BSI bloodstream infection
BSL biosafety level
BTX botulinum toxin
BUN blood urea nitrogen
CA community-acquired
CAA coronary artery aneurysm
CAP community-acquired pneumonia
CAPS cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome
CART combination antiretroviral therapy
CBC complete blood count
CBDI Cancer and Blood Disease Institute
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CD4 cluster of differentiation 4
CDI Clostridium difficile infection
CDR Candida drug resistance
CE Conformité Européenne
CERN Chicago Ebola Response Network
CF cystic fibrosis
CFU colony-forming unit
CGD chronic granulomatous disease
CHD congenital heart disease
CHG chlorhexidine gluconate
CHIME Collaborative Home Infant Monitoring Evaluation
CI confidence interval
CIA chemiluminescence immunoassay
CIAIS cold-induced autoinflammatory syndrome
CIC Certified Inpatient Coder
CINCA chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous–articular (syndrome)
CLABSI central line–associated bloodstream infection
CLIA Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments
CLSI Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute
CMP chemistry panel
CMR cardiovascular magnetic resonance
CMV cytomegalovirus
CNS central nervous system
CoNS coagulase-negative Staphylococcus
CoV coronavirus
CPAM congenital pulmonary airway malformation
CPE cytopathic effect
CPIC Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium
CPK creatine phosphokinase
CPS Canadian Paediatric Society
CRBSI catheter-related bloodstream infection
CRE carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae
CRF circulating recombinant form
CRMO chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis
CRMP collapsing-responsive mediator protein
CRP C-reactive protein
CRS congenital rubella syndrome
CSF cerebrospinal fluid
CST cavernous sinus thrombosis
CT computed tomography
CTBA cystine tellurite blood agar
CVC central venous catheter
CVID common variable immunodeficiency
CXR chest X-ray
CZS congenital Zika syndrome
DAMP damage-associated molecular pattern
DAT direct antiglobulin test
DBS deep-brain stimulation
DCI data collection instrument
DCM dilated cardiomyopathy
DCT direct Coombs test
DEET N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (also known as diethyltoluamide)
DES dysfunctional elimination syndrome
DEXA dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
DFA direct fluorescent antibody
DGI disseminated gonococcal infection
DHHS Department of Health and Human Services
DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation
DIH drug-induced hypersensitivity
DIRA deficiency of IL (interleukin)-1 receptor agonist
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
DOCK8 dedicator of cytokinesis 8 gene
DOT directly observed therapy
DRESS drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms
DRV darunavir
ds double strength (in prescriptions)
DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
DTaP diphtheria–tetanus–acellular pertussis (vaccine)
DTG dolutegravir
d-TGA dextro-transposition of the great arteries
DWI diffusion-weighted imaging
EAC external auditory canal
EACTS European Association of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
EANM European Association of Nuclear Medicine
EBNA Epstein–Barr nuclear antigen
EBUS-NA endobronchial ultrasound-guided needle aspiration
EBV Epstein–Barr virus
ED emergency department
EDTA ethylenediamine tetra (acetic acid)
EEE eastern equine encephalitis
EES erythromycin ethylsuccinate
EFV efavirenz
EGA estimated gestational age
EHEC enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli
EIA enzyme immunoassay
ELF epithelial lung fluid
ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
EKG electrocardiogram
EMLA eutectic mixture of local anesthetics
EMR electronic medical record
EMTCT elimination of mother-to-child transmission (of HIV)
EPA Environmental Protection Agency (US)
ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
ESBL extended-spectrum β-lactamase
ESC European Society of Cardiology
ESCMID European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
ESPGHAN European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition
ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate
ESRD end-stage renal disease
ETEC enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli
ETV etravirine
EUCAST European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
EV enterovirus
EVD external ventricular drain
FAUC/MIC ratio of free (non-protein-bound) drug exposure over time, represented as area under the time–concentration (t/C) curve, over the minimum inhibitory concentration
FCAS familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome
FCU familial cold urticaria
FDA Food and Drug Administration (US)
FESS functional endoscopic sinus surgery
FI fusion inhibitor
F&I febrile and immunocompromised
FIRS fetal inflammatory response syndrome
5-FC 5-fluorocytosine
5-FU 5-fluorouracil
FLAIR fluid-attenuated inversion recovery
FMEA failure modes and effects analysis
FMF familial Mediterranean fever
FMT fecal microbiota transplantation
FNA fine-needle aspiration
FNAB fine-needle aspiration biopsy
FP, FN false positive, false negative
FTA-abs fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption
FTC emtricitabine
FTT failure to thrive
FUO fever of unknown origin
FWS fever without a source
GABA γ-aminobutyric acid
GABHS group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus
GAS group A Streptococcus
GBS group B Streptococcus
GCSF granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
GCV ganciclovir
GDH glutamate dehydrogenase
GEE generalized estimating equation
GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease
GFR glomerular filtration rate
GGT γ-glutamyltransferase
GHD graft-versus-host disease
GI gastrointestinal
Glut1 glucose transporter type 1
G6PD glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
GU genitourinary
GWAS genome-wide association study
HAART highly active antiretroviral therapy
HACEK Haemophilus, Actinobacillus (now Aggregatibacter), Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella (genera)
HAI healthcare-associated infection
HAV hepatitis A virus
HBcAg hepatitis B core antigen
HBeAg hepatitis B e-antigen
HBIG hepatitis B immunoglobulin
HBsAg hepatitis B surface antigen
HCV hepatitis C virus
HCW healthcare worker
HDAF human decay–accelerating factor
HDV hepatitis D virus
HEPA high-efficiency particulate air
HEV hepatitis E virus
HIDS hyper-IgD (with periodic fever) syndrome
HFNC high-flow nasal cannula
HHV human herpesvirus
Hib Haemophilus influenzae type b
HICPAC Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
HLA human leukocyte antigen
HLH hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis
hMPV human metapneumovirus
HNS head and neck surgery
HPF high-power field
HPLC high-performance liquid chromatography
HPV human papillomavirus
HRV human rhinovirus
HSCT hematopoietic stem cell transplant
HSP Henoch–Schönlein purpura
HSV herpes simplex virus
HTLV human T-cell lymphotropic virus
HUS hemolytic–uremic syndrome
hVISA heterogeneous vancomycin intermediate Staphylococcus aureus
IAP intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis
IAT indirect antiglobulin test
IBD inflammatory bowel disease
IBI invasive bacterial infection
ICP intracranial pressure
ICU intensive care unit
IDSA Infectious Diseases Society of America
IDU injection drug use(r)
IE infective endocarditis
IFI invasive fungal infection
Ig immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG, IgM, etc)
IGRA interferon-γ release assay
IHI Institute for Healthcare Improvement
IM intramuscular(ly)
INR International Normalized Ratio
IPC infection prevention and control
IPD invasive pneumococcal disease
IPEX immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked
iPrEx preexposure prophylaxis initiative (trial; initiativa profilaxis pre-exposicion)
IPV inactivated polio vaccine
IQ intelligence quotient
IQR interquartile range
IRF interferon regulatory factor
IRIS immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
ISC International Society of Chemotherapy
I/T immature-to-total ratio (sepsis ratio)
ITB intrathecal baclofen
IU international unit
IUD intrauterine device
IV intravenous
IVIG intravenous immunoglobulin
JCV John Cunningham virus
JDMS juvenile dermatomyositis
JEV Japanese encephalitis virus
JIA juvenile idiopathic arthritis
KD Kawasaki disease
KID Kids’ Inpatient Database
KOH potassium hydroxide
LAD leukocyte adhesion deficiency
LAIV live-attenuated intranasal influenza vaccine
LAM lipoarabinomannan
LCA left coronary artery
LCH Langerhans cell histiocytosis
LCMV lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
LCV LaCrosse virus
LDH lactate dehydrogenase
LF lateral flow
LFT liver function test
LGBT lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender
LGl leucine-rich glioma
LGli1 leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1
LIP lymphoid interstitial pneumonia
LLQ left lower quadrant
LN lymph node
LoR level of reliability
LOS length of stay (in hospital)
LP lumbar puncture
LPS lipopolysaccharide
LPV/r lopinavir/ritonavir
LR likelihood ratio
LTBI latent tuberculosis infection
LUQ left upper quadrant
LV left ventricular
MA mevalonic aciduria
MAC Mycobacterium avium complex
MAI Mycobacterium avium intracellulare
MALDI-TOF matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight (mass spectrometry)
MAT microscopic agglutination test
MBC minimum bactericidal concentration
MDR multidrug resistance
MDRO multidrug-resistant organism
MEE middle-ear effusion
MERS Middle East respiratory syndrome
MFI multiflex flow immunoassay
MGIT mycobacteria growth indicator tube
MIBG metaiodobenzylguanidine
MIC minimum inhibitory concentration
MLM multilevel model
MLS macrolide–lincosamide–streptogramin
MMR measles–mumps–rubella
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
MRSA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
MSBP Munchausen syndrome by proxy
MSG Mycosis Study Group
MSM men who have sex with men
MSSA methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus
Mtb Mycobacterium tuberculosis
N/A not applicable or (data) not available (used in tables only)
NAAT nucleic acid amplification test
NADPH nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
NASPGHAN North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition
NBTE nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis
NCNGU nonchlamydia, nongonococcal urethritis
NEMO NF-κB-essential modulator
NF nuclear factor
NFAT nuclear factor of activated T cells
NHANES National Health and Examination Survey
NHSN National Healthcare Safety Network
NI neurologic impairment
NICE National Institute (for Health and) Clinical Excellence (UK)
NICU neonatal (or newborn) intensive care unit
NMDA-R N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor
NMO neuromyelitis optica
NNRTI nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
NNT number needed to treat
NOMID neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease
NP nasopharyngeal
NPA nasopharyngeal aspirate
nPEP nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis
NPS nasopharyngeal swab
NPUAP National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel
NPV negative predictive value
NPW nasopharyngeal wash
NRTI nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
NTM nontuberculous mycobacteria
NT-proBNP N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide
NVP nevirapine
ODT orally disintegrating tablet
OE otitis externa
OFPBL oxidation–fermentation with polymyxin B, bacitracin, and lactose
OI opportunistic infection
OM otitis media
OMAS opsoclonus–myoclonus–ataxia syndrome
O&P ova and parasite
oPEP occupational postexposure prophylaxis
OR odds ratio
ORS oral rehydration solution
ORT oral radiation therapy
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OTC over the counter
PA posterior–anterior (also posteroanterior)
PAE postantibiotic effect (amount of time that bacterial regrowth is suppressed following removal of an antibiotic)
PaLoc pathogenicity locus in Clostridium difficile
PAMP pathogen-associated molecular pattern
PAN polyarteritis nodosa
PANDAS pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder(s) associated with streptococcal infection
PANS pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome
PaO2 partial pressure of arterial oxygen
PAPA pyogenic sterile arthritis; pyoderma gangrenosum and acne
PAPR powered air-purified respirator
PAS periodic acid–Schiff (stain)
PASOJAR Pennsylvania Systemic Onset Juvenile Arthritis Registry
PBP penicillin-binding protein
PCD primary ciliary dyskinesia
PCF pediatric condition falsification
PCN penicillin
PCO2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide
PCP Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia
PCR polymerase chain reaction
PCT procalcitonin
PCV pneumococcal (protein–polysaccharide) conjugate vaccine
PCV13 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
PD pharmacodynamic
PDC potential diagnostic clue
PDSA plan–do–study–act
PEACH pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) Evaluation and Clinical Health Study
PedsQL Pediatric Quality of Life
PEMCRC Pediatric Emergency Medicine Collaborative Research Committee
PFAPA periodic fever–adenitis–pharyngitis–aphthous ulcer
PfEMP1 Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1
PGM3 phosphoglucomutase 3 gene
PHIL Public Health Image Library
PHMB poly(hexamethyl biguanide)
PI protease inhibitor
PICC peripherally inserted central venous catheter
PICNIC Pediatric Investigators Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada
PICU pediatric intensive care unit
PID pelvic inflammatory disease
PIDS Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
PK pharmacokinetic
PLEX plasma exchange
PLoS Public Library of Science
PML progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
PMN polymorphonuclear neutrophil
PO per os (orally; by mouth)
PPD purified protein derivative
PPE personal protective equipment
PPSV23 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine
PPV positive predictive value
PrEP preexposure prophylaxis
PRES posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome
PRIVENT Prevention of Recurrent (urinary tract) Infection (in children with) Vesicoureteric (reflux) Normal (renal) Tract (mnemonic)
PROS Pediatric Research Office Settings
PRP poly(ribosylribitol phosphate)
PSRA poststreptococcal reactive arthritis
PT physical therapy
PTA peritonsillar abscess
PVA polyvinyl alcohol
PVL periventricular leukomalacia
PZA pyrazinamide
Q/D quinupristin/dalfopristin
QI quality improvement
RAD reactive-airway disease
RADT rapid antigen detection test
RAISE Randomized controlled trial to Assess Immunoglobulin plus Steroid Efficiency
RAL raltegravir
RBC red blood cell
RBUS renal bladder ultrasound
rCDI recurrent Clostridium difficile infection
RCT randomized controlled trial
REM rapid eye movement
RIA radioimmunoassay
RIG rabies immunoglobulin
RIVUR Randomized Intervention (for children with) Vesicourethral Reflux
RLQ right lower quadrant
RMSF Rocky Mountain spotted fever
RN registered nurse
RNA ribonucleic acid
RODEO ROutine versus on DEmand removal Of the syndesmotic stabilization screw (trial)
RPA retropharyngeal abscess
RPR rapid plasma regain
RR relative risk
RRR relative risk reduction
RSV respiratory syncytial virus
RT real time
RUQ right upper quadrant
RV right ventricle
SARS severe acute respiratory syndrome
SBECD sulfobutylether-β-cydodextrin
SBI serious bacterial infection
SCC staphylococcal chromosome cassette
SCID severe combined immunodeficiency
SCIWORA spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality
Scr serum creatinine
SD standard deviation
SDD susceptible-dose-dependent
SDF silver diamine fluoride
SEM skin, eye, and mucous (also mouth) membranes
SES socioeconomic status
SHEA Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America
SIADH syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (secretion)
SIDS sudden infant death syndrome
SIM simian immunodeficiency virus
SJIA systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis
SJS Stevens–Johnson syndrome
SMART specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, time-bound (mnemonic)
SNHL sensorineural hearing loss
SPAG small-particle aerosol generator
SPECT single-photon emission computed tomography
SPG sphenopalatine ganglion
SPIDS Saudi Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
SPS sodium polyanetholsulfonate
SSI surgical site infection
SSPE subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
SSSS staphylococcal scalded-skin syndrome
SSTI skin and soft tissue infection
STAT3 signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 gene
STD sexually transmitted disease
STEC Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli
TB tuberculosis
TBE tickborne encephalitis
TCBS thiosulfate citrate bile sucrose
Tdap tetanus–diphtheria–acellular pertussis
TDF-FTC tenofovir–emtricitabine
TDSA thymidine-dependent Staphylococcus aureus
TEE transesophageal echocardiography
TIG tetanus immunoglobulin
TIV trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine
TM tympanic membrane
TMP-SMX trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole
TNFα tumor necrosis factor alpha
TOA tubo-ovarian abscess
TORCH Toxoplasma gondii, Other microorganisms, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex virus (mnemonic)
TP, TN true positive, true negative
TPPA Treponema pallidum particle agglutination
TRAPS tumor necrosis factor (TNF)–receptor–associated periodic syndrome
TRUST Tracking Resistance in US Today (mnemonic)
TSS toxic shock syndrome
TST tuberculin skin test
TTE transthoracic echocardiography
TUBC transurethral bladder catheterization
UA urinalysis
UGI upper gastrointestinal (barium series)
URI upper respiratory infection
USPHSTF US Public Health Service Task Force
UV ultraviolet
VAC ventilator-associated condition
VAERS Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System
VATS video-assisted therascopic surgery
VCA viral capsid antigen
VCUG voiding cystourethrogram
Vd volume of distribution
VDRL venereal disease research laboratory
VFR visiting friends and relatives
VP ventriculoperitoneal
V/Q ventilation/perfusion
VRE vancomycin-resistant enterococcus
VSD Vaccine Safety Datalink
VUR vesicourethral reflux
VZV varicella zoster virus
WASP wait-and-see prescription
WBC white blood cell
WHIM warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, and myelokathexis
WHO World Health Organization
WNV West Nile virus
XLA X-linked agammaglovulinemia
XLP X-linked lymphoproliferative (disease)
YMSM young men who have sex with men
ZDV zidovudine

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