Management of early (up to 1 postnatal [PN] week), evolving (>1 PN week to 36 weeks postmenstrual age [PMA]), and established (>36 weeks PMA) phases of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).
Suggest oxygen supplementation, ventilator strategies, pharmacological approaches, and nutritional support practice guidelines in all three phases of BPD.
BPD is the most common chronic lung disease in infants. The status of the mode of respiratory support, with “physiologic” testing to ascertain the supplemental oxygen requirement, at 36 weeks PMA is the current recommended definition. Genetic predisposition plus interactions with environmental factors (lung immaturity, ventilator-induced lung injury, pre- and postnatal infections, and exposure to prolonged, high concentrations of supplemental oxygen) underlie the etiopathogenesis of BPD.