This book is dedicated to Alonzo deGrate Smith, MD (1890–1970), and Roland Boyd Scott, MD (1909–2002). With his appointment in 1932 to the Howard University School of Medicine, Dr. Smith was the first African American pediatrician to serve full time on an academic medical faculty in the United States. Dr. Scott was an internationally recognized pediatrician-scientist focused on the care of sickle cell disease. In addition, Dr. Scott served as Chair of the Department of Pediatrics at the Howard University School of Medicine. Drs. Smith and Scott were made to bear numerous professional indignities and clear many hurdles, despite being successful clinicians, investigators, and leaders in the pediatric academic community. They are remembered for their accomplishments, perseverance, advocacy, and leadership in the field of pediatrics.