• Any situation that requires central venous access
or venous access that cannot be obtained peripherally.
• An emergency resuscitation requiring administration of large
amounts of fluids.
• The need for central venous pressure monitoring.
• Placement of a pulmonary artery catheter.
• The need for frequent blood draws.
• Infusion of hyperalimentation, concentrated solutions (ie, KCl,
dextrose concentrations greater than 12.5%, chemotherapeutic
agents, hyperosmolar saline).
• Infusion of vasoactive substances (ie, dopamine and norepinephrine)
that can extravasate and cause soft-tissue necrosis.
• The need for hemodialysis.