• Cardiac catheterization is the invasive evaluation,
and more recently, treatment of heart disease, using catheters that
are threaded into the various chambers and vessels of the heart
and circulatory system.
• Vascular access for most pediatric catheterizations is via the
• For complex procedures or anatomy, multiple access sites may
be required and include bilateral femoral vessels, jugular or subclavian
veins; rarely, transhepatic puncture is required.
• Patients who have femoral access are generally required to remain
supine with legs straight from 4 to 6 hours after the procedure
to prevent rebleeding.