• Obtain medical history and physical examination
for clearance from pulmonary, cardiovascular, and hematologic standpoints.
• Obtain laboratory tests, if needed.
• Primary care providers can prepare patients and families by explaining
that the procedure provides detailed diagnostic information and
rarely causes complications (1/2000 chance of significant
bleeding or perforation).
• Have parents sign a consent form.
• No oral intake for 6 hours before the procedure.
• Antibiotics for endocarditis prophylaxis in at-risk cardiac patients.