• In many cases of kidney disease, laboratory
evaluation of the blood and urine fails to yield a specific diagnosis.
• Occasionally, a clinical syndrome or constellation of laboratory
findings might narrow the differential diagnosis; examples include the following:
• Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (acute onset, transient hypocomplementemia, recent streptococcal infection).
• Systemic lupus erythematosus (positive antinuclear antibody and anti-ds-DNA antibodies, hypocomplementemia, joint pains, and rashes).
• Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (nephrosis in a school-age
child without azotemia, hypocomplementemia, or other complications).
• In these instances, a kidney biopsy might not be required.
• However, in most cases, a tissue specimen is required to establish a specific etiology.