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The International Society of the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) divided vascular anomalies into malformations or tumors, and the vast majority of vascular lesions can be classified using this schema (Table 364-1). Vascular tumors and malformations can usually be distinguished from one another based on clinical appearance and growth characteristics (Table 364-2). If diagnosis is unclear observation over time, imaging studies or even biopsy may be required.

Table 364-1. Updated International Society of the Study of Vascular Anomalies Classification of Vascular Anomalies
Table 364-2. Major Differences between Vascular Tumors and Malformations

Clinical Manifestations and Subtypes

The most common vascular tumor is infantile hemangioma (IH), present in approximately 4% of infants and more common in females, Caucasians, preterm infants (particularly in those weighing < 1500 g) and infants of multiple gestations.2 A key clinical feature is whether hemangiomas are localized (eg, arising as a nodule or small area ...

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